On April 15 (Iyar 5, according to the Jewish calendar), Israeli celebrates Independence Day. The holiday is held annually on Tuesday, Wednesday or Thursday (up to 5 days), in memory of the proclamation of the State of Israel on May 14, 1948.

The creation of an independent Jewish state was preceded by a long preparatory process, which began in the late 19th century by supporters of the Zionist movement led by the famous social and political figure Theodor Herzl (1860–1904). However, only after the end of World War II, the tragedy of the Holocaust the international community turned its attention to the issue of recognizing Israel's independence. On November 29, 1947, the UN General Assembly, by a majority of 33 to 13, adopted a resolution on the division of Palestine into two states. On May 4, 1948, the day of the expiration of the British mandate, the head of the Jewish Agency (Sokhnut), one of the leaders of the Zionist movement David Ben-Gurion, read the Declaration of Independence of the new state at the Tel Aviv Museum, Israel (State of Israel). At the same time, David Ben-Gurion was proclaimed head of the Provisional Government.

A couple hours after the proclamation of Declaration of Independence, the armies of neighboring countries – Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon and Iraq – invaded the new country and Jews had to defend their independence again, restored to their ancestral lands after two millennia of statelessness. More than 6,000 people died in this war, which lasted more than a year. The following year, the Knesset, the parliament of Israel, passed a law establishing a national holiday on the 5th day of the month of Iyar, called Yom Ha'atzmaut - Independence Day.

Yom Ha'atzmaut is the only non-religious holiday of the State of Israel that has been declared a non-working day. On this day, receptions and military parades are held all over the country; the most significant achievements in various fields are demonstrated. And everywhere – on buildings, cars, squares – state flags are hung out.